~jpetazzo/Adventures in GELF

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If you are running apps in containers and are using Docker’s GELF logging driver (or are considering using it), the following musings might be relevant to your interests.

Some context

When you run applications in containers, the easiest logging method is to write on standard output. You can’t get simpler than that: just echo, print, write (or the equivalent in your programming language!) and the container engine will capture your application’s output.

Other approaches are still possible, of course; for instance:

In the last scenario, this service can be:

If your application is very terse, or if it serves very little traffic (because it has three users, including you and your dog), you can certainly run your logging service in-house. My orchestration workshop even has a chapter on logging which might give you the false idea that running your own ELK cluster is all unicorns and rainbows, while the truth is very different and running reliable logging systems at scale is hard.

Therefore, you certainly want the possibility to send your logs to somebody else who will deal with the complexity (and pain) that comes with real-time storing, indexing, and querying of semi-structured data. It’s worth mentioning that these people can do more than just managing your logs. Some systems like Sentry are particularly suited to extract insights from errors (think traceback dissection); and many modern tools like Honeycomb will deal not only with logs but also any kind of event, letting you crossmatch everything together to find out the actual cause of that nasty 3am outage.

But before getting there, you want to start with something easy to implement, and free (as much as possible).

That’s where container logging comes handy. Just write your logs on stdout, and let your container engine do all the work. At first, it will write plain boring files; but later, you can reconfigure it to do something smarter with your logs — without changing your application code.

Note that the ideas and tools that I discuss here are orthogonal to the orchestration platform that you might or might not be using: Kubernetes, Mesos, Rancher, Swarm … They can all leverage the logging drivers of the Docker Engine, so I’ve got you covered!

The default logging driver: json-file

By default, the Docker Engine will capture the standard output (and standard error) of all your containers, and write them in files using the JSON format (hence the name json-file for this default logging driver). The JSON format annotates each line with its origin (stdout or stderr) and its timestamp, and keeps each container log in a separate file.

When you use the docker log command (or the equivalent API endpoint), the Docker Engine reads from these files and shows you whatever was printed by your container. So far, so good.

The json-file driver, however, has (at least) two pain points:

The first issue can easily be fixed by giving some extra parameters to the json-file driver in Docker to enable log rotation. The second one, however, requires one of these fancy log services that I was alluding to.

Even if your queries are not as complex, you will want to centralize your logs somehow, so that:

Aparté: when I was still carrying a pager and taking care of the dotCloud platform, our preferred log analysis technique was called “Ops Map/Reduce” and involved fabric, parallel SSH connections, grep, and a few other knick-knacks. Before you laugh of our antiquated techniques, let me ask you how your team of 6 engineers dealt with the log files of 100000 containers 5 years ago and let’s compare our battle scars and PTSD-related therapy bills around a mug of tea, beer, or other suitable beverage. ♥

Beyond json-file

Alright, you can start developing (and even deploying) with the default json-file driver, but at some point, you will need something else to cope with the amount of logs generated by your containers.

That’s where the logging drivers come handy: without changing a single line of code in your application, you can ask your faithful container engine to send the logs somewhere else. Neat.

Docker supports many other logging drivers, including but not limited to:

I’m going to stop the list here because GELF has a few features that make it particulary interesting and versatile.

GELF

GELF stands for Graylog Extended Log Format. It was initially designed for the Graylog logging system. If you haven’t heard about Graylog before, it’s an open source project that pioneered “modern” logging systems like ELK. In fact, if you want to send Docker logs to your ELK cluster, you will probably use the GELF protocol! It is an open standard implemented by many logging systems (open or proprietary).

What’s so nice about the GELF protocol? It addresses some (if not most) of the shortcomings of the syslog protocol.

With the syslog protocol, a log message is mostly a raw string, with very little metadata. There is some kind of agreement between syslog emitters and receivers; a valid syslog message should be formatted in a specific way, allowing to extract the following information:

That protocol was great in the 80s (and even the 90s), but it has some shortcomings:

GELF made a very risqué move and decided that every log message would be a dict (or a map or a hash or whatever you want to call them). This “dict” would have the following fields:

At first you might think, “OK, what’s the deal?” but this means that when a web servers logs a request, instead of having a raw string like this:

127.0.0.1 - frank [10/Oct/2000:13:55:36 -0700] "GET /apache_pb.gif HTTP/1.0" 200 2326

You get a dict like that:

{
  "client": "127.0.0.1",
  "user": "frank",
  "timestamp": "2000-10-10 13:55:36 -0700",
  "method": "GET",
  "uri": "/apache_pb.gif",
  "protocol": "HTTP/1.0",
  "status": 200,
  "size": 2326
}

This also means that the logs get stored as structured objects, instead of raw strings. As a result, you can make elaboarate queries (something close to SQL) instead of carving regexes with grep like a caveperson.

OK, so GELF is a convenient format that Docker can emit, and that is understood by a number of tools like Graylog, Logstash, Fluentd, and many more.

Moreover, you can switch from the default json-file to GELF very easily; which means that you can start with json-file (i.e. not setup anything in your Docker cluster), and later, when you decide that these log entries could be useful after all, switch to GELF without changing anything in your application, and automatically have your logs centralized and indexed somewhere.

Using a logging driver

How do we switch to GELF (or any other format)?

Docker provides two command-line flags for that:

These options can be passed to docker run, indicating that you want this one specific container to use a different logging mechanism; or to the Docker Engine itself (when starting it) so that it becomes the default option for all containers.

(If you are using the Docker API to start your containers, these options are passed to the create call, within the HostConfig.LogConfig structure.)

The “arbitrary options” vary for each driver. In the case of the GELF driver, you can specify a bunch of options but there is one that is mandatory: the address of the GELF receiver.

If we have a GELF receiver on the machine 1.2.3.4 on the default UDP port 12201, you can start your container as follows:

docker run \
  --log-driver gelf --log-opt gelf-address=udp://1.2.3.4:12201 \
  alpine echo hello world

The following things will happen:

Then, hopefully 1.2.3.4 receives the UDP packet, proecesses it, writes the message to some persistent indexed store, and allows you to retrieve or query it.

Hopefully.

I would tell you an UDP joke, but

If you have ever been on-call or responsible for other people’s code, you are probably cringing by now. Our precious logging message is within a UDP packet that might or might not arrive to our logging server (UDP has no transmission guarantees). If our logging server goes away (a nice wording for “crashes horribly”), our packet might arrive, but our message will be obliviously ignored, and we won’t know anything about it. (Technically, we might get an ICMP message telling us that the host or port is unreachable, but at that point, it will be too late, because we won’t even know which message this is about!)

Perhaps we can live with a few dropped messages (or a bunch, if the logging server is being rebooted, for instance). But what if we live in the Cloud, and our server evaporates? Seriously, though: what if I’m sending my log messages to an EC2 instance, and for some reason that instance has to be replaced with another one? The new instance will have a different IP address, but my log messages will continue to stubbornly go to the old address.

DNS to the rescue

An easy technique to work around volatile IP addresses is tu use DNS. Instead of specifying 1.2.3.4 as our GELF target, we will use gelf.container.church, and make sure that this points to 1.2.3.4. That way, whenever we need to send messages to a different machine, we just update the DNS record, and our Docker Engine happily sends the messages to the new machine.

Or does it?

If you have to write some code sending data to a remote machine (say, gelf.container.church on port 12345), the simplest version will look like this:

  1. Resolve gelf.container.church to an IP address (A.B.C.D).
  2. Create a socket.
  3. Connect this socket to A.B.C.D, on port 12345.
  4. Send data on the socket.

If you must send data multiple times, you will keep the socket open, both for convenience and efficiency purposes. This is particularly important with TCP sockets, because before sending your data, you have to go through the “3-way handshake” to establish the TCP connection; in other words, the 3rd step in our list above is very expensive (compared to the cost of sending a small packet of data).

In the case of UDP sockets, you might be tempted to think: “Ah, since I don’t need to do the 3-way handshake before sending data (the 3rd step in our list above is essentially free), I can go through all 4 steps each time I need to send a message!” But in fact, if you do that, you will quickly realize that you are now stumped by the first step, the DNS resolution. DNS resolution is less expensive than a TCP 3-way handshake, but barely: it still requires a round-trip to your DNS resolver.

Aparté: yes, it is possible to have very efficient local DNS resolvers. Something like pdns-recursor or dnsmasq running on localhost will get you some craaazy fast DNS response time for cached queries. However, if you need to make a DNS request each time you need to send a log message, it will add an indirect, but significant, cost to your application, since every log line will generate not only one syscall, but three. Damned! And some people (like, almost everyone running on EC2) are using their cloud provider’s DNS service. These people will incur two extra network packets for each log line. And when the cloud provider’s DNS is down, logging will be broken. Not cool.

Conclusion: if you log over UDP, you don’t want to resolve the logging server address each time you send a message.

Hmmm … TCP to the rescue, then?

It would make sense to use a TCP connection, and keep it up as long as we need it. If anything horrible happens to the logging server, we can trust the TCP state machine to detect it eventually (because timeouts and whatnots) and notify us. When that happens, we can then re-resolve the server name and re-connect. We just need a little bit of extra logic in the container engine, to deal with the unfortunate scenario where the write on the socket gives us an EPIPE error, also known as “Broken pipe” or in plain english “the other end is not paying attention to us anymore.”

Let’s talk to our GELF server using TCP, and the problem will be solved, right?

Right?

Unfortunately, the GELF logging driver in Docker only supports UDP.

(╯°□°)╯︵ ┻━┻

At this point, if you’re still with us, you might have concluded that computing is just a specialized kind of hell, that containers are the antichrist, and Docker is the harbinger of doom in disguise.

Before drawing hasty conclusions, let’s have a look at the code.

When you create a container using the GELF driver, this function is invoked, and it creates a new gelfWriter object by calling gelf.NewWriter.

Then, when the container prints something out, eventually, the Log function of the GELF driver is invoked. It essentially writes the message to the gelfWriter.

This GELF writer object is implemented by an external dependency, github.com/Graylog2/go-gelf.

Look, I see it coming, he’s going to do some nasty fingerpointing and put the blame on someone else’s code. Despicable!

Hot potato

Let’s investigate this package, in particular the NewWriter function, the Write method, and the other methods called by the latter, WriteMessage and writeChunked. Even if you aren’t very familiar with Go, you will see that these functions do not implement any kind of reconnection logic. If anything bad happens, the error bubbles up to the caller, and that’s it.

If we conduct the same investigation with the code on the Docker side (with the links in the previous section), we reach the same conclusions. If an error occurs while sending a log message, the error is passed to the layer above. There is no reconnection attempt, neither in Docker’s code, nor in go-gelf’s.

This, by the way, explains why Docker only supports the UDP transport. If you want to support TCP, you have to support more error conditions than UDP. To phrase things differently: TCP support would be more complicated and more lines of code.

Haters gonna hate

One possible reaction is to get angry at the brave soul who implemented go-gelf, or the one who implemented the GELF driver in Docker. Another better reaction is to be thankful that they wrote that code, rather than no code at all!

Workarounds

Let’s see how to solve our logging problem.

The easiest solution is to restart our containers whenever we need to “reconnect” (technically, resolve and reconnect). It works, but it is very annoying.

A slightly better solution is to send logs to 127.0.0.1:12201, and then run a packet redirector to “bounce” or “mirror” these packets to the actual logger; e.g.:

socat UDP-LISTEN:12201 UDP:gelf.container.church:12201

This needs to run on each container host. It is very lightweight, and whenever gelf.container.church is updated, instead of restarting your containers, you merely restart socat.

(You could also send your log packets to a virtual IP, and then use some fancy iptables -t nat ... -j DNAT rules to rewrite the destination address of the packets going to this virtual IP.)

Another option is to run Logstash on each node (instead of just socat). It might seem overkill at first, but it will give you a lot of extra flexibility with your logs: you can do some local parsing, filtering, and even “forking,” i.e. deciding to send your logs to multiple places at the same time. This is particularly convenient if you are switching from one logging system to another, because it will let you feed both systems in parallel for a while (during a transition period).

Running Logstash (or another logging tool) on each node is also very useful if you want to be sure that you don’t lose any log message, because it would be the perfect place to insert a queue (using Redis for simple scenarios, or Kafka if you have stricter requirements).

Even if you end up sending your logs to a service using a different protocol, the GELF driver is probably the easiest one to setup to connect Docker to e.g. Logstash or Fluentd, and then have Logstash or Fluentd speak to the logging service with the other protocol.

UDP packets sent to localhost can’t be lost, except if the UDP socket runs out of buffer space. This could happen if your sender (Docker) is faster than your receiver (Logstash/Fluentd), which is why we mentioned a queue earlier: the queue will allow the receiver to drain the UDP buffer as fast as possible to avoid overflows. Combine that with a large enough UDP buffer, and you’ll be safe.

Future directions

Even if running a cluster-wide socat is relatively easy (especially with Swarm mode and docker service create --mode global), we would rather have a good behavior out of the box.

There are already some GitHub issues related to this: #23679, #17904, and #16330. One of the maintainers has joined the conversation and there are some people at Docker Inc. who would love to see this improved.

One possible fix is to re-resolve the GELF server name once in a while, and when a change is detected, update the socket destination address. Since DNS provides TTL information, it could even be used to know how long the IP address can be cached.

If you need better GELF support, I have good news: you can help! I’m not going to tell you “just send us a pull request, ha ha ha!” because I know that only a very small number of people have both the time and expertise to do that — but if you are one of them, then by all means, do it! There are other ways to help, though.

First, you can monitor the GitHub issues mentioned above (#23679 and #17904). If the contributors and maintainers ask for feedback, indicate what would (or wouldn’t) work for you. If you see a proposition that makes sense, and you just want to say “+1” you can do it with GitHub reactions (the “thumbs up” emoji works perfectly for that). And if somebody proposes a pull request, testing it will be extremely helpful and instrmental to get it accepted.

If you look at one of these GitHub issues, you will see that there was already a patch proposed a long time ago; but the person who asked for the feature in the first place never tested it, and as a result, it was never merged. Don’t get me wrong, I’m not putting the blame on that person! It’s a good start to have a GitHub issue as a kind of “meeting point” for people needing a feature, and people who can implement it.

It’s quite likely that in a few months, half of this post will be obsolete because the GELF driver will support TCP connections and/or correctly re-resolve addresses for UDP addresses!

This work by Jérôme Petazzoni is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.