When you want to install a new machine, or boot in rescue mode, the usual method is to boot from a CD or USB stick. But virtually all modern computers with an Ethernet interface can also boot from the network. Here is how to setup a boot server super easily, by running it in a Docker container.
On Intel machines (32 or 64 bits), the network boot mechanism is called PXE. It uses multiple protocols:
- DHCP lets the booting machine discover the IP address it should use, and retrieve some basic parameters, like DNS, gateway, address of server to boot from;
- TFTP is used to download the code to execute – typically a loader which, in turn, can fetch a Linux kernel and initrd.
PXE can be used in many scenarios; but we can simplify and consider two cases.
- You can’t (or don’t want to) use a CD/USB media to install/reinstall the machine. If you are managing thousands of machines, you don’t want to haul around a stack of bootable CDs or USB sticks; and you don’t want to have to find one to reinstall a single machine, neither. My university was (and probably still is) using PXE to painlessly deploy Linux and Windows on thousands of machines. It took maybe 10 minutes for a single person to install, reinstall, or upgrade a lab of 25 machines.
- You want to run totally diskless. In that case, after booting, Linux will typically switch to a NFS root filesystem. Since it is possible to operate from a read-only NFS root, it means that you can boot hundreds of machines from a single PXE+NFS server. Installing or upgrading packages is extremely easy (and doesn’t require a reboot of the diskless machines!). Your workstations can be more reliable (since hard disks are often the number one failure cause), run faster (since a gigabit Ethernet network will have faster throughput and lower latency than a typical spinning disk), use less power, and be more silent (since you can spin down the hard disk, or remove it altogether).
Here, we will show how to build a PXE server (DHCP+TFTP) to boot a machine to the Debian install system. It lets you install Debian entirely from the network. You can of course tailor it to your needs (and I hope someone will submit interesting pull requests to make that happen).
Why run that in a Docker container?
As you will see, setting up a PXE server is not hard. It used to be more complicated, but dnsmasq simplified the whole things immensely, since it combines a DNS, DHCP, and TFTP server, and can be configured entirely from the command-line.
So why bother using a container for that?
- The setup is not hard, but it’s still a bit of work (especially if you’re not familiar with those protocols). PXE used to be very picky (some machines would require random magic DHCP options to be there, or they would just ignore the DHCP server). It got better with the years, but still, it’s great to have something that is known to work, rather than re-installing the environment each time, and wondering if it doesn’t work because you’re missing some magic option that you forgot to write down. (Happened to me countless times, until I froze my whole boot server in a chroot!)
- PXE uses DHCP, and running a DHCP server can be disruptive. Almost all networks use DHCP for automatic IP address allocation and configuration now; so if you run a DHCP server on your machine, you will probably disrupt the local network (and get in trouble with the local network administrator, unless you’re the local network adminstrator; then you will be the one troubleshooting weird issues with machines suddenly misbehaving because they were “hooked” by your new DHCP server). It would be a good idea to have an easy way to start and stop the boot server. A VM would be great, but VMs are so 2000; this is the 2010s, so let’s containerize all the things!
- Because we can! :-)
Then, you will need pipework. Just download it from the repository; it’s a simple shell script.
Running the boot server
PXECID=$(docker run -d jpetazzo/pxe) pipework br0 $PXECID 192.168.242.1/24
Now, the PXE server is booting anything connected to the
but usually, nothing is connected to that bridge. So, assuming that
is your Ethernet interface, just do
brctl addif br0 eth0 – and that’s it!
Now you can boot PXE machines on the network connected to
Alternatively, you can put VMs on
br0 and achieve the same result.
When you want to stop the boot server, just do
docker kill $PXECID.
How did you build the container?
With a Dockerfile, of course. Let’s look at this Dockerfile.
First, we’ll use Debian (because I love Debian).
Then, we declare some environment variables. If you want to netboot 32 bits
machines, you can change
ARCH; if you want to install the
DIST. And of course you can update the mirror if you want.
ENV ARCH amd64 ENV DIST wheezy ENV MIRROR http://ftp.nl.debian.org
Now we install the required packages. Dnsmasq is the DNS+DHCP+TFTP server. We will need wget a bit later; and iptables will be used to give network access to the netbooted machines.
RUN apt-get -q update RUN apt-get -qy install dnsmasq wget iptables
We install pipework. Pipework is used in the container for one trivial thing:
eth1 becomes available.
eth1 will appear “automagically”
when we run pipework in the host, after starting the container.
RUN wget --no-check-certificate https://raw.github.com/jpetazzo/pipework/master/pipework RUN chmod +x pipework
Download the Linux kernel, ramdisk, and PXE boot loader from the Debian mirror.
WORKDIR instruction means that all further lines will be executed in
RUN mkdir /tftp WORKDIR /tftp RUN wget $MIRROR/debian/dists/$DIST/main/installer-$ARCH/current/images/netboot/debian-installer/$ARCH/linux RUN wget $MIRROR/debian/dists/$DIST/main/installer-$ARCH/current/images/netboot/debian-installer/$ARCH/initrd.gz RUN wget $MIRROR/debian/dists/$DIST/main/installer-$ARCH/current/images/netboot/debian-installer/$ARCH/pxelinux.0
Then we generate a minimal boot configuration. This works like this:
- the DHCP server will tell to the netbooted machines “hey, you should first
pxelinux.0is a boot loader which, in turn, will try to load a configuration file from
pxelinux.cfg/XXX; it will try multiple different files in that directory, and will eventually try
- this file tells to the boot loader “get the files called
initrd.gzand use them respectively as a kernel and initial ramdisk, then boot!”
RUN mkdir pxelinux.cfg RUN printf "DEFAULT linux\nKERNEL linux\nAPPEND initrd=initrd.gz\n" >pxelinux.cfg/default
Last but not least, we define the command that should run within the container. This one is big! We could have used a script; but since it’s not that big, we decided to use line continuations instead.
This command will enable network connection sharing, it will wait for the pipework-provided network interface to come up, then it will start dnsmasq. Dnsmasq really does all the work!
CMD \ echo Setting up iptables... &&\ iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -j MASQUERADE &&\ echo Waiting for pipework to give us the eth1 interface... &&\ /pipework --wait &&\ echo Starting DHCP+TFTP server...&&\ dnsmasq --interface=eth1 \ --dhcp-range=192.168.242.2,192.168.242.99,255.255.255.0,1h \ --dhcp-boot=pxelinux.0,pxeserver,192.168.242.1 \ --pxe-service=x86PC,"Install Linux",pxelinux \ --enable-tftp --tftp-root=/tftp/ --no-daemon
How do I boot something else?
I hope that this container can be used as a base for more complex stuff. If you extend it to add menus and other things, don’t hesitate to submit pull requests. It would be awesome to have a bigger, more universal, PXE boot server!
What’s the deal with the hard-coded 192.168.242…?
I had two options when writing this: using pipework, or not using pipework. First, let’s see what it means to not use pipework.
If we don’t use pipework, we need to expose the UDP ports used by DHCP and TFTP. Then, since the goal is to boot machines sitting on the “real” network (i.e. not the Docker internal network), we need to probe that network to figure out the address of the default gateway, of the DNS server, and a range of available addresses to use for DHCP. Once we have that information, we can use it to start dnsmasq.
I think that this would have been much more complicated to get right. In some scenarios it would have been completely impossible. So I decided to use pipework instead, and use an arbitrary network.
Thanks to Tianon, who suggested that this might be possible. Your feedback (and your contributions to Docker in general) are awesome!